Vehicle Package & Headline

13 05 2009

From the reseach that i had conducted over the past few weeks its become clear that people tend to ingage better with nice looking cars i.e. the Lambo or the Mazda Furai. Howevre the main emphasis is that people want above all a vehicle the is friendlier and cheaper to run than Petrol driven vehicles. The fluctuation of vehicle use was lent toeard one to two people in most cases, however in peek times it would rise to 4 or 5 people. So the seating is needed.

The main drivers that pushed me toward the shape is:

-Eco friendly

-Yet stylish, sleek and sophisticated, all the things that helped put the good looking vehicle on top as opposed to the eco vehicle. So why not combine both?

Here is my first attemp at the package and platform.

Package – Fuel Cell Technology


Vehicle Headline

Profile headline

Technology – Dynamic Augmented Wheel System

12 05 2009

Google Image Result for

Hmm…a tire that splits into eight parts and pretty much encourages speeding.


The Dynamic Augmented Wheel System allows the wheel to split up into eight parts allowing your car to take a turn while maintaining speed and traction. There’s a magnetic guide rail inside that allows the wheel to stay intact while driving straight and then moves to let it shift with the car’s center of gravity when turning.

People already have a hard time changing one tire, let alone a tire that has eight parts.

Get your popcorn ready and pull up a chair along freeways everywhere.

Technology – Maglev wheel

12 05 2009

Google Image Result for

I had a thought! after looking at the Maglev trains why can this technology be used in a wheel movement or rotation? SO i had a look and apparently there are a few concepts that adopt the idea.

“Zero” Bike

The idea is simple. By using the below principals of the Maglev train perhaps put the idea into a circular motion levitating a wheel around a rim… the electromagnets give the wheel propulsion and turn the wheel. Hmmm… this could be a future turn into how a motor in a wheel works

I will further explore the idea for my vehicle.

Tehcnology – Maglev (Transport)

12 05 2009

Maglev (transport) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maglev, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother.


There are three primary types of maglev technology:

Electro magnetic suspension

In current electromagnetic suspension (EMS) systems, the train levitates above a steel rail while electromagnets, attached to the train, are oriented toward the rail from below. The electromagnets use feedback control to maintain a train at a constant distance from the track, at approximately 15 millimeters (0.6 in).

Electrodynamic suspension

In electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the rail and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive force between these magnetic fields. The magnetic field in the train is produced by either electromagnets (as in JR-Maglev) or by an array of permanent magnets (as in Inductrack). The repulsive force in the track is created by an induced magnetic field in wires or other conducting strips in the track.

At slow speeds, the current induced in these coils and the resultant magnetic flux is not large enough to support the weight of the train. For this reason the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation.

Propulsion coils on the guideway are used to exert a force on the magnets in the train and make the train move forward. The propulsion coils that exert a force on the train are effectively a linear motor: An alternating current flowing through the coils generates a continuously varying magnetic field that moves forward along the track. The frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train. The offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward.

Stabilized Permanent Magnet suspension

SPM maglev systems differ from EDS maglev in that they use opposing sets of rare earth magnets (typically neodymium alloys in a Halbach array) in the track and vehicle to create permanent, passive levitation; i.e., no power is required to maintain permanent levitation. With no current required for levitation, the system has much less electromagnetic drag, thus requiring much less power to move a given cargo at a given speed.

Because of Earnshaw’s theorem, SPM maglev systems require a mechanism to create lateral stability (i.e., controlling the side-to-side movement of the vehicle). One way to provide this stability is to use a set of coils along the bottom of the magnet array on the vehicle being levitated, which centers the vehicle over the rails by means of small amounts of current. Because the voice coils are not needed to provide lift and there is almost no drag, this system uses less power than other maglev systems: when the vehicle is centered over the rails, it uses no power. As the vehicle navigates a curve, the controller moves the vehicle to a ‘balance point’ inside the curve so that the (magnetic) centripetal pull of the magnetic rails in the ground offset the vehicle’s (kinetic) centrifugal momentum. This balance point varies based on the vehicle’s weight, which the controller automatically accounts for, resulting in zero steady state power consumption.

Pros and cons of different technologies

EMS (Electromagnetic suspension)

Pros- Magnetic fields inside and outside the vehicle are less than EDS; proven, commercially available technology that can attain very high speeds (500 km/h); no wheels or secondary propulsion system needed.

Cons- The separation between the vehicle and the guideway must be constantly monitored and corrected by computer systems to avoid collision due to the unstable nature of electromagnetic attraction; due to the system’s inherent instability and the required constant corrections by outside systems, vibration issues may occur.

EDS (Electrodynamic)

Pros- Onboard magnets and large margin between rail and train enable highest recorded train speeds (581 km/h) and heavy load capacity; has recently demonstrated (December 2005) successful operations using high temperature superconductors in its onboard magnets, cooled with inexpensive liquid nitrogen

Cons- Strong magnetic fields onboard the train would make the train inaccessible to passengers with pacemakers or magnetic data storage media such as hard drives and credit cards, necessitating the use of magnetic shielding; limitations on guideway inductivity limit the maximum speed of the vehicle; vehicle must be wheeled for travel at low speeds.

Inductrack System (Permanent Magnet EDS)

Pros-Failsafe Suspension – no power required to activate magnets; Magnetic field is localized below the car; can generate enough force at low speeds (around 5 km/h) to levitate maglev train; in case of power failure cars slow down on their own safely; Halbach arrays of permanent magnets may prove more cost-effective than electromagnets

Requires either wheels or track segments that move for when the vehicle is stopped. New technology that is still under development (as of 2008) and as yet has no commercial version or full scale system prototype.


An EDS system can provide both levitation and propulsion using an onboard linear motor. EMS systems can only levitate the train using the magnets onboard, not propel it forward. As such, vehicles need some other technology for propulsion. A linear motor (propulsion coils) mounted in the track is one solution. Over long distances where the cost of propulsion coils could be prohibitive, a propeller or jet engine could be used.


Some systems use Null Flux systems[12] these use a coil which is wound so that it enters two opposing, alternating fields. When the vehicle is in the straight ahead position, no current flows, but if it moves off-line this creates a changing flux that generates a field that pushes it back into line.

Power and energy usage

Power for maglev trains is used to accelerate the train, and may be produced when the train slowed (“regenerative braking“), it is also usually used to make the train fly, and to stabilise the flight of the train, for air conditioning, heating, lighting and other miscellaneous systems. Power is also needed to force the train through the air (“air drag“).

At low speeds the levitation power can be significant, but at high speeds, the total time spent levitating to travel each mile is greatly reduced, giving reduced energy use per mile, but the air drag energy increases as a square law on speed, and hence at high speed dominates.

Technology – Steer by Wire

12 05 2009

The aim of steer-by-wire technology is to completely do away with as many mechanical components
(steering shaft, column, gear reduction mechanism, etc.) as possible. Completely replacing conventional steering system with steer-by-wire holds several advantages, such as:

  • The absence of steering column simplifies the car interior design.
  • The absence of steering shaft, column and gear reduction mechanism allows much better space utilization in the engine compartment.
  • The steering mechanism can be designed and installed as a modular unit.
  • Without mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the road wheel, it is less likely that the impact of a frontal crash will force the steering wheel to intrude into the driver’s survival space.
  • Steering system characteristics can easily and infinitely be adjusted to optimize the steering response and feel.
  • Mechanicla weight reduction of hydraulic parts and linkages. 

As of 2007 there are no production cars available that rely solely on steer-by-wire technology due to safety, reliability and economic concerns, but this technology has been demonstrated in numerous concept cars and similar technology is in used in military and civilian aviation applications.

Drive by wire Rack and Pinion

Linkage to the wheels

Technology – Drive By Wire

12 05 2009

Drive by wire – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Drive-by-wire, DbW, by-wire, or x-by-wire technology in the automotive industry replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control systems using electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces such as pedal and steering feel emulators. Hence, the traditional components such as the steering column, intermediate shafts, pumps, hoses, fluids, belts, coolers and brake boosters and master cylinders are eliminated from the vehicle.

Examples -include electronic throttle control and brake-by-wire


Safety can be improved by providing computer controlled intervention of vehicle controls with systems such as Electronic Stability Control (ESC), adaptive cruise control and Lane Assist Systems.Ergonomics can be improved by the amount of force and range of movement required by the driver and by greater flexibility in the location of controls. This flexibility also significantly expands the number of options for the vehicle’s design.


The cost of DbW systems is often greater than conventional systems. The extra costs stem from greater complexity, development costs and the redundant elements needed to make the system safe. Failures in the control systems can result in an unstoppable runaway vehicle – if the throttle, ignition and transmission are all beyond the direct control of the driver there is no effective way to stop the vehicle in such an event.

Forward thinking

Some fanciful theories and applications abound as to what the ultimate implications of DbW technology might be. It has been suggested that DbW might allow a car to become completely separate from its controls, meaning that a car of the future might theoretically be controlled by any number of different control systems: push buttons, joysticks, steering wheels, or even voice commands — whatever device that designers could come up with. This would have many advantages, such as:

  • increased flexibility for handicapped or disabled drivers
  • less weight in the car
  • more space in the car

Technology – Morphing tyres

11 05 2009